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Sysvinit/Udev/Sysklogd  

2009-01-09 15:22:12|  分类: linux-system |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Sysvinit package contains programs for controlling the startup, running, and shutdown of the system.

init
    The first process to be started when the kernel has initialized the hardware which takes over the boot process and starts all the proceses it is instructed to
sulogin
    Allows root to log in; it is normally invoked by init when the system goes into single user mode
bootlogd
    Logs boot messages to a log file


runlevel
    Reports the previous and the current run-level, as noted in the last run-level record in /var/run/utmp
mountpoint
    Checks if the directory is a mountpoint
pidof
    Reports the PIDs of the given programs


telinit
    Tells init which run-level to change to
killall5
    Sends a signal to all processes, except the processes in its own session so it will not kill the shell running the script that called it


halt
    Normally invokes shutdown with the -h option, except when already in run-level 0, then it tells the kernel to halt the system; it notes in the file /var/log/wtmp that the system is being brought down
poweroff
    Tells the kernel to halt the system and switch off the computer (see halt)
reboot
    Tells the kernel to reboot the system (see halt)
shutdown
    Brings the system down in a secure way, signaling all processes and notifying all logged-in users


last
    Shows which users last logged in (and out), searching back through the /var/log/wtmp file; it also shows system boots, shutdowns, and run-level changes
lastb
    Shows the failed login attempts, as logged in /var/log/btmp
utmpdump
    Displays the content of the given login file in a more user-friendly format


mesg
    Controls whether other users can send messages to the current user's terminal

===================================================================================
The Udev package contains programs for dynamic creation of device nodes.

Installed programs: ata_id, cdrom_id, collect, create_floppy_devices, edd_id, firmware.sh, fstab_import, path_id, scsi_id, udevadm, udevd, usb_id, vol_id, write_cd_rules, and write_net_rules
Installed libraries: libudev and libvolume_id
Installed directory: /etc/udev

/etc/udev
    Contains Udev configuration files, device permissions, and rules for device naming


libudev
    A library interface to udev device information
libvolume_id
    A library interface to read volume labels and uuids

udevd
    A daemon that listens for uevents on the netlink socket, creates devices and runs the configured external programs in response to these uevents
udevadm
    Generic udev administration tool: controls the udevd daemon, provides info from the Udev database, monitors uevents, waits for uevents to finish, tests Udev configuration, and triggers uevents for a given device
fstab_import
    Finds an entry in /etc/fstab that matches the current device, and provides its information to Udev


collect
    Given an ID for the current uevent and a list of IDs (for all target uevents), registers the current ID and indicates whether all target IDs have been registered
create_floppy_devices
    Creates all possible floppy devices based on the CMOS type
firmware.sh
    Uploads firmware to devices


write_net_rules

    A script which generates rules to provide stable names for network interfaces (see also Section 7.13, “Configuring the network Script”)
write_cd_rules
    A script which generates Udev rules to provide stable names for optical drives (see also Section 7.12, “Creating Custom Symlinks to Devices”)


path_id
    Provides the shortest possible unique hardware path to a device
edd_id
    Provides Udev with the EDD ID for a BIOS disk drive
scsi_id
    Provides Udev with a unique SCSI identifier based on the data returned from sending a SCSI INQUIRY command to the specified device
ata_id
    Provides Udev with a unique string and additional information (uuid, label) for an ATA drive
cdrom_id
    Provides Udev with the capabilities of a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive
usb_id
    Provides Udev with information about USB devices
vol_id
    Provides Udev with the label and uuid of a filesystem

==================================================================================
The Sysklogd package contains programs for logging system messages, such as those given by the kernel when unusual things happen.

klogd
    A system daemon for intercepting and logging kernel messages
syslogd
    Logs the messages that system programs offer for logging. Every logged message contains at least a date stamp and a hostname, and normally the program's name too, but that depends on how trusting the logging daemon is told to be
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