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【Learn】M4/Flex/Bison/GCC/Binutils  

2009-01-08 20:05:26|  分类: History |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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M4
The M4 package contains a macro processor.

m4
copies the given files while expanding the macros that they contain. These macros are either built-in or user-defined and can take any number of arguments. Besides performing macro expansion, m4 has built-in functions for including named files, running Unix commands, performing integer arithmetic, manipulating text, recursion, etc. The m4 program can be used either as a front-end to a compiler or as a macro processor in its own right.
============================================================================================
Flex
The Flex package contains a utility for generating programs that recognize patterns in text.

flex

A tool for generating programs that recognize patterns in text; it allows for the versatility to specify the rules for pattern-finding, eradicating the need to develop a specialized program

lex

A script that runs flex in lex emulation mode

libfl.a

The flex library


=======================================================================================
Bison
The Bison package contains a parser generator.

bison

Generates, from a series of rules, a program for analyzing the structure of text files; Bison is a replacement for Yacc (Yet Another Compiler Compiler)

yacc

A wrapper for bison, meant for programs that still call yacc instead of bison; it calls bison with the -y option

liby.a

The Yacc library containing implementations of Yacc-compatible yyerror and main functions; this library is normally not very useful, but POSIX requires it


=======================================================================================
The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes the C and C++ compilers.

c++

The C++ compiler

cc

The C compiler

cpp

The C preprocessor; it is used by the compiler to expand the #include, #define, and similar statements in the source files

g++

The C++ compiler

gcc

The C compiler

gccbug

A shell script used to help create useful bug reports

gcov

A coverage testing tool; it is used to analyze programs to determine where optimizations will have the most effect

libgcc

Contains run-time support for gcc

libmudflap

Contains routines that support GCC's bounds checking functionality

libssp

Contains routines supporting GCC's stack-smashing protection functionality

libstdc++

The standard C++ library

libsupc++

Provides supporting routines for the C++ programming language

=======================================================================================
The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other tools for handling object files.

as An assembler that assembles the output of gcc into object files
ld A linker that combines a number of object and archive files into a single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol references
c++filt Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep overloaded functions from clashing


objcopy Translates one type of object file into another
strip Discards symbols from object files


ar Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives
ranlib Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it in the archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive members that are relocatable object files


readelf Displays information about ELF type binaries
size Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given object files
gprof Displays call graph profile data
addr2line Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers; given an address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging information in the executable to determine which source file and line number are associated with the address


strings Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable characters that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from the initializing and loading sections while for other types of files, it scans the entire file
objdump Displays information about the given object file, with options controlling the particular information to display; the information shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation tools
nm Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file


libiberty Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including getopt, obstack, strerror, strtol, and strtoul
libbfd The Binary File Descriptor library
libopcodes A library for dealing with opcodes—the “readable text” versions of instructions for the processor; it is used for building utilities like objdump.





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