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My Unix World

不要迷恋Unix,Unix只是计算世界很小的一部分!

 
 
 

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Shadow/Kbd/Bash  

2009-01-11 04:34:09|  分类: linux-system |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Shadow package contains programs for handling passwords in a secure way.

pwconv
    Creates or updates the shadow password file from the normal password file
pwunconv
    Updates /etc/passwd from /etc/shadow and then deletes the latter
pwck
    Verifies the integrity of the password files /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow
vipw
    Edits the /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow files
vigr
    Link to vipw


grpconv
    Creates or updates the shadow group file from the normal group file
grpunconv
    Updates /etc/group from /etc/gshadow and then deletes the latter
grpck
    Verifies the integrity of the group files /etc/group and /etc/gshadow


useradd
    Creates a new user with the given name, or updates the default new-user information
newusers
    Is used to create or update an entire series of user accounts
userdel
    Deletes the given user account
chfn
    Used to change a user's full name and other information
chpasswd
    Used to update user passwords in batch mode
groupmems
    Allows a user to administer his/her own group membership list without the requirement of super user privileges.
chsh
    Used to change a user's default login shell
usermod
    Is used to modify the given user's login name, User Identification (UID), shell, initial group, home directory, etc.


groupadd
    Creates a group with the given name
groupdel
    Deletes the group with the given name
groupmod
    Is used to modify the given group's name or GID
chgpasswd
    Used to update group passwords in batch mode
gpasswd
    Is used to add and delete members and administrators to groups


passwd
    Is used to change the password for a user or group account

chage
    Used to change the maximum number of days between obligatory password changes
expiry
    Checks and enforces the current password expiration policy


login
    Is used by the system to let users sign on
logoutd
    Is a daemon used to enforce restrictions on log-on time and ports
nologin
    Displays a message that an account is not available. Designed to be used as the default shell for accounts that have been disabled


su
    Runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs
newgrp
    Is used to change the current GID during a login session
sg
    Link to newgrp


lastlog
    Reports the most recent login of all users or of a given user
faillog
    Is used to examine the log of login failures, to set a maximum number of failures before an account is blocked, or to reset the failure count
=================================================================================
The Kbd package contains key-table files and keyboard utilities.

fgconsole
    Prints the number of the active virtual terminal
deallocvt
    Deallocates unused virtual terminals
chvt
    Changes the foreground virtual terminal
openvt
    Starts a program on a new virtual terminal (VT)


resizecons
    Changes the kernel idea of the console size
showconsolefont
    Shows the current EGA/VGA console screen font
setfont
    Changes the Enhanced Graphic Adapter (EGA) and Video Graphics Array (VGA) fonts on the console
mapscrn
    An obsolete program that used to load a user-defined output character mapping table into the console driver; this is now done by setfont


loadkeys
    Loads the keyboard translation tables
getkeycodes
    Prints the kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table
dumpkeys
    Dumps the keyboard translation tables
showkey
    Reports the scancodes, keycodes, and ASCII codes of the keys pressed on the keyboard
setkeycodes
    Loads kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries; this is useful if there are unusual keys on the keyboard
setmetamode
    Defines the keyboard meta-key handling


kbdrate
    Sets the keyboard repeat and delay rates
setleds
    Sets the keyboard flags and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)


loadunimap
    Loads the kernel unicode-to-font mapping table
psfxtable
    Handle Unicode character tables for console fonts
unicode_start
    Puts the keyboard and console in UNICODE mode. Don't use this program unless your keymap file is in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. For other encodings, this utility produces incorrect results.
unicode_stop
    Reverts keyboard and console from UNICODE mode
kbd_mode
    Reports or sets the keyboard mode


psfaddtable
    A link to psfxtable
psfgettable
    A link to psfxtable
psfstriptable
    A link to psfxtable

==================================================================================
The Bash package contains the Bourne-Again SHell.

bash
    A widely-used command interpreter; it performs many types of expansions and substitutions on a given command line before executing it, thus making this interpreter a powerful tool
bashbug
    A shell script to help the user compose and mail standard formatted bug reports concerning bash
sh
    A symlink to the bash program; when invoked as sh, bash tries to mimic the startup behavior of historical versions of sh as closely as possible, while conforming to the POSIX standard as well
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