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【COPY】ReactOS Introduction  

2008-12-06 13:22:18|  分类: L-Compatible |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Note: This article copyed from http://www.reactos.org/zh/index.html and you can go there find more details.
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ReactOS is an effort to create a Free Software replacement for Microsoft Windows(TM) that is compatible with existing hardware and software!

What is ReactOS?

ReactOS is a free and open-source operating system based on the Windows NT architecture design, providing support for existing applications and drivers and an alternative to the current dominant consumer and server operating systems.

Why re-implement NT?

First of all, the 'Windows' the general public knows is actually just one part of the modern Windows NT operating system. They usually mean the Win32 subsystem, a layer that sits upon the NT kernel, providing the user and application interface.

"NT is still around, known as XP and Vista"

Most people think of 'NT' as 'WinNT 4', while in reality the term NT is equal to the NT series, which ranges from version 3 over NT5 (2000, XP, 2003) to NT6 (Vista).
The NT architecture was designed by a team lead by David Cutler, a former lead developer of VMS. It took them more than 4 years to combine the best of UNIX, VMS and OS/2 and create the NT architecture.

What about UNIX?

"For every OS
there is an equal
and opposite,
ReactOS"

MacOS X, Linux, BSD flavors and other UNIX derivates share a common heritage based on a more than three decades old design of a simple basic operating system, that has evolved over time into a complex structure.
Modern incarnations like Mac OS X put a fancy graphical user interface on top of UNIX, to hide system details and focus mainly for beginners and likely advanced users are left out in the rain. In contrast, various Linux and BSD flavors have been put together originally for server usage and are therefore very console centric. Most advanced features cannot be accessed from the basic graphical user interface. Almost all UNIX flavors retain some of the original design flaws and binary compatibility between various versions is usually non-existent.

In theory there are a few UNIX standards like POSIX but in practice the standards are old and cover only the basic operating system and the terminal environment. Other standards such as the Linux Standard Base are often not implemented faithfully. As there is no user interface standard nor a standard API, most people still have to use command line applications or fight through the GUI mess. Many UNIX derivates use the de-facto standard X-Window system for graphical output, which might well possess one of the worst designs in software history.
Still, modern UNIX derivates are trying to catch up with recent innovations and some of them already possess important features like access control list support.

In contrast to UNIX, ReactOS was designed for people familiar and comfortable with the Windows environment. Everything can be done through the well known Win32 user interface and advanced users are free to automate tasks with scripts or use the console.

Compatible

"Change your OS, not your software!"

Actually, the ReactOS project reimplements a state-of-the-art and open NT alike operating system based on the NT architecture-design. It comes of course with a WIN32 subsystem, NT driver compatibility and a handful of useful applications and tools.

ReactOS combines the power and strengths of the NT kernel - which is well known for its extensibility, portability, reliability, robustness, performance and compatibility – with Win32 compatibility.

Secure

Despite statements to the contrary, NT is secure by design. It was the first mainstream operating system with a proper implementation of a very flexible security model based on access control lists.

"It's all about settings"

Recent NT based operating system from Redmond, especially XP, got bad reputation for its weak default security-settings; mainly, to simplify the transition from Win9x for both users and legacy applications. This decision alone invalidated many of the security features in NT. ReactOS will incorporate proper default security settings.

ReactOS has been designed for high security; it doesn't share common security flaws with other operating system.

"Viruses, Malware? A minor issue."

On a closer view, real computer viruses (which are normal applications) are not widespread anymore. Most bad software are scripts that target common network software like browsers and email applications and software that had inbuilt scripting support like various Office products.
Obviously, more widespread systems with a large user base are more likely to be attacked by bad software writers than minor systems like Macintosh and Linux.

Lightweight

In short, ReactOS is designed to be powerful and lightweight. You can think of the term "lightweight" in the good old fashion of Win95, a consistent user interface and small bundle of very common and useful tools. In contrast, ReactOS offers a lot more, an up-to-date experience as well as built from scratch on a rock solid NT core.

Open

ReactOS is free software, the source code of the whole system is available for free and it is licensed under the GNU GPL license.

"'Free' as in 'free speech' and as in 'free beer'"

ReactOS does not phone home or track your usage, nor does it contain spy-software. As a matter of fact, other well known competitors are known for such practices.

Life with other operating systems tends to be a love-hate relationship, with most people falling strongly on one side or the other. The ReactOS project has a great community that is well appreciated.

Reliable

"Open your windows to freedom"

In fact, ReactOS has been written from scratch since 1996, a rock solid NT re-implementation, and therefore a reliable and robust operating system for tasks ranging from embedded micro computer to personal computer, workstations to server cluster, mainframes and super computers.
ReactOS incorporates many design decisions from other operating system families like UNIX, VMS, OS/2 and of course NT and is meant as 'the' new platform that serves all.

Performance

ReactOS is lightweight and fast and will outperform other bloated operating system in several ways.

Portability

"ReactOS – the XP successor people asked for"

The ReactOS operating system design is able to provide portability across families of processors, such as Intel x86 and even provide portability across different processor architectures, such as CISC and RISC.
There is only one single OS core, the kernel; porting ReactOS to other architectures involves 'only' the hardware abstraction layer, the lowest part that talks directly with the platform hardware.

Extensible

ReactOS is flexible and extensible by design. ReactOS is probably one of the most versatile operating system platform, especially thanks to its NT kernel and the open source nature.
ReactOS can be extended with the help of so called "subsystems" to provide support for legacy applications from other platforms. For example, a POSIX subsystem would provide compatibility layer with various flavors of UNIX applications.

Object Based

ReactOS is not an object-oriented system in the strictest sense of the term, but it does use objects to represent internal system resources. Software objects are a combination of computer instructions and data that model the behavior of things, real or imagined, in the world.

"UNIX file metaphor is sooooo 1970s"

UNIX operating system adhere to the file metaphor, and devices such as printers, storage devices, keyboards, and monitors all appear as ordinary files to both programmers and regular users. This simplifies many routine tasks, and is a key component in the extensibility of the system. The file metaphor has several downsides and it is known as a bottleneck of UNIX like operating systems.
ReactOS capitalizes on this metaphor and expands it. It uses an object metaphor that is pervasive throughout the architecture of the system. Not only are all of the things in the UNIX file metaphor viewed as objects by ReactOS, but so are things such as processes and threads, shared memory segments, the global registry database and even access rights.

====================================

What is ReactOS?

ReactOS is a free and open-sourced operating system based on the Windows NT architecture, providing support for existing applications and drivers, and an alternative to the current dominant consumer operating system.

It would be perhaps important to start by saying what ReactOS -isn't-. It is not another wrapper built on Linux, like WINE. It does not attempt or plan to compete with WINE; in fact, the user-mode part of ReactOS is almost entirely WINE-based and our two teams have cooperated closely in the past. ReactOS is also not "yet another OS". It does not attempt to be a third player, like SkyOS or any other alternative OS out there. People are not meant to uninstall Linux and use ReactOS instead; ReactOS is a replacement for Windows users who want a Windows replacement that behaves just like Windows.

While ReactOS' source availability and current usage is mostly intended for programmers to expand and improve on, you don't need to be a rocket scientist to use it, and in its final state will be a consumer friendly OS. If you've used Windows before, you'll find yourself in a familiar environment with ReactOS. The learning curve, if any, should be minimal, since ReactOS duplicates many of the Windows graphical environment applets, control panels and dialogs (Windows 2000/XP/2003).

Focus at present is on developing ReactOS to a stage where it is capable of running most Windows drivers and applications "out of the box." This does not mean that ReactOS will stop there, however; as new features are added to Windows, our developers be striving to incorporate such new features in future versions of ReactOS. Once the compatibility level has been reached, we may even choose to improve ReactOS beyond its Windows roots. These changes would be external from the main OS, and totally compatible with Windows, but they would add an extra advantage. For example, one of our goals is to have built-in POSIX compatibility, much like Windows Services for Unix. It could also be as simple as natively supporting multiple desktops however, instead of requiring a powertoy.

ReactOS?? is a registered trademark of the ReactOS Foundation.
Windows? NT? is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

========================================

Why Reactos?

A lot of people in popular discussion forums keep asking “why should I use ReactOS” or “why would someone need ReactOS” or “why not help develop Wine instead?” or “why not use Linux with Wine?”.

We have an answer for all these questions, but it's not some simple magic word. Let's name a few key issues here:

  • There are plenty of *nix operating systems out there, this is very good. However they have different targeting (they perfectly fit server market, but desktop still isn't conquered, and several factors work against most Windows alternatives out today).

  • There is currently no operating system which implements the kernel architecture design of MS Windows NT family (GNU/Linux is the best for comparison here: Linux was started as “clone” of Minix and Unix (eventually going on to be a Unix replacement), and ReactOS was started as “clone” of Windows NT).

  • Linux+Wine is never going to be a complete replacement for a full Windows system. It's not only because Linux (despite there are some really user-friendly Linux distros out there), and not only because many users might find a transition to Linux/BSD difficult, but it's due to design and implementation decisions of Linux and Wine architectures, which prevent 100% compatibility.

  • Even though Linux supports many types of hardware, Windows is still the dominant platform for device manufactorers. There are attempts to overcome this situation (like NDIS Wrapper for NT network card drivers, there are rumours about supporting NT video drivers, Captive NTFS for NT filesystem support), but ReactOS solves them from the first day by its design – be compatible with existing drivers and existing applications.

  • There are many people who do not like how *nix systems behave or dislikes the conventions used. For them, Linux, BSD, and Mac OS X are not options, even before application compatibility and hardware support come into play. An operating system should give the consumers what they want instead of demanding the consumer conform. Even with WINE, you are still running an operating system that behaves quite differently from Windows, at a user and system level.

  • Backwards compatibility. This is something vital for many people and companies, but the development philosophy of Linux and the GNU project do not consider it a priority. The Windows family has always went out of its way to ensure a stable API and backwards compatibility. By its design, ReactOS will also follow the philosophy of backwards compatibility with existing and future applications designed for the Windows NT family.
  • There are no plans for Windows to become released under a GPL-compatible license (at least, ReactOS team is not aware of them).

Finally, ReactOS offers a third alternative, for people who are fed up with Microsoft's policies but do not want to give up the familiar environment, architectural design, and millions of existing software applications and thousands of hardware drivers.


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