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My Unix World

不要迷恋Unix,Unix只是计算世界很小的一部分!

 
 
 

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【Copy】A Brief History of Computing 2  

2008-12-17 18:09:18|  分类: T-General |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1970 Development of UNIX operating system started. It was later released as C source code to aid portability, and subsequently versions are obtainable for many different computers, including the IBM PC. It and its clones (such as Linux) are still widely used on network and Internet servers. Originally developed by Ken Thomson and Dennis Ritchie.
1970 'Forth' programming language developed.
1970 - June Steve Geller, Ray Holt and a team from AiResearch and American Microsystems completed development of a flight data processor for the US Navy's F14A `TomCat' fighter jet. This processor used LSI chips to produce a fast and powerfull programmable computer that fitted into the very tight space restrictions of the aircraft.
1971 - November 15 First microprocessor, the 4004, developed by Marcian E. Hoff for Intel, was released. It contains the equivalent of 2300 transistors and was a 4 bit processor. It is capable of around 60,000 Interactions per second (0.06 MIPs), running at a clock rate of 108KHz.
1971 Development of PASCAL finished - see 1967.
1972 Atari founded (as Syzygy) by Nolan Bushnell, who designed pong (see also 1972).
1972 Pong released - widely recognised as the first popular arcade video game. It was invented by Atari's founder, Nolan Bushnell, and briefly became reasonably popular. However its lack of excitement or variation meant it never captivated players like Space Invaders (1978) or other arcade games of the 1980s.
1972 Computers built after 1972 are often called 'fourth generation' computers, based on LSI (Large Scale Integration) of circuits (such as microprocessors) - typically 500 or more components on a chip. Later developments include VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) of integrated circuits 5 years later - typically 10,000 components. Modern circuits may now contain millions of components. This has led to very small, yet incredibly powerful computers. The fourth generation is generally viewed as running right up until the present, since although computing power has increased the basic technology has remained virtually the same. By the late 1990s many people began to suspect that this technology was reaching its limit, further miniaturisation could only achieve so much. 64 megabit RAM chips have circuitry so small that it can be measured in atoms, circuits this small pose many technical problems - notably the heat created but they are also very susceptible to influence by temperature or radiation. It has been argued fifth generation computers are based on parallel processing and VLSI integration - but are still being developed and I'd be wary of writing the history books until the history has actually occured! Besides computers need to be massively parallel before they give a significant enough advantage to warrent a new generation of computing.
1972

C programming language developed at The Bell Laboratories in the USA by Dennis Ritche (one of the inventors of the UNIX operating system), its predecessor was the B programming language - also from The Bell Laboratories. It is a very popular language, especially for systems programming - as it is flexible and fast. C++, allowing for Object-Orientated Programming, was introduced in early 1980s.

1972 First Handheld scientific calculator released by Hewlett-Packard, the engineer's slide rule is at last obsolete.
1972 - April 1 8008 Processor released by Intel.
1972 The first international connections to ARPANET are established. ARPANET later became the basis for what we now call the internet.
1973 Prolog developed at the University of Luminy-Marseilles in France by Alain Colmerauer. It is often used for AI programming.
1973 Ethernet developed, this became a vero popular way of connecting PCs and other computers together - to enable them to share data, and devices such as printers. A group of machines connected together in this way is known as a LAN.
1974 CLIP-4, the first computer with a parallel architecture.
1974 - April 1 Introduction of 8080. An 8 Bit Microprocessor from Intel.
1974 - December MITS Altair 8800, the first personal computer to be available commercially released, by Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems. In December 1974 an article in 'Popular Electronics' inviting people to order kits for the computer, based on the Intel 8080 they cost just $397 each and despite the limited memory (256 bytes) and limited processing power around 200 were ordered on the first day.
1975 First implementation of BASIC by Bill Gates and Paul Allen, it was written for the MITS Altair - the first personal computer - this led to the formation of Microsoft later in the year.
1975 Unix marketed (see 1970).
1975 Formation of Microsoft by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. It is now one of the most powerful and successful computing companies, a distinct improvement on the pair's original company, Traf-O-Data, which made car counters for highway departments. In just 3 years it achieved revenues of $500,000 and employed 15 people. By 1992 this had increased to revenues of 2.8 billion (50% of which are from exports), and over 10,000 employees - a fantastic feat for a company less than 20 years old. Microsoft's big break was when they were asked to write the operating system for the I.B.M. PC, released in 1981. Although financially not as large as IBM, Microsoft has a huge amount of influence in the Computing Industry.
1975 IBM 5100 released.
1976 Apple Computer, Inc. founded, to Market Apple I computer. Designed by Stephen Wozniak and Stephen Jobs.
1976 First laser printer introduced by IBM - the IBM 3800. The first colour versions came onto the market in 1988.
1976? Introduction of 8085.
1976 Z80 released by Zilog, and the basis for the computer boom in the early 1980s. It was an 8 bit microprocessor. CP/M was written for the Z80 as well as software like Wordstar and dBase II - and it formed the basis for the Sinclair Spectrum of 1982.
1976 6502, 8 bit microprocessor developed and later chosen to equip the Apple II computer. Also fitted in the original Acorn machine, BBC Micro, Commodore 64 and Commodore PET.
1976

Cray 1, the first commercially developed Supercomputer, it contained 200,000 integrated circuits and was freon-cooled. It could perform 150 million floating point operations per second - it is now the basis of an informal measurement of the power Supercomputers, by the mid-1990s these had reached the 1000-'cray' mark! Supercomputers are also measured by the number of floating point operations they can do in a second, but this figure can be misleading as the definition of a floating point operation is open to some debate - but these operations are far more complicated than integer operations normally handled by Microcomputers. In 1992 the fastest Computer was the Cray-2, which can do around 250 million floating point operations per seconds. Cray have continued to develop even more powerful computers, such as the Cray Y-MP/832.

Such Supercomputers are used for weather forecasting, complex maths and physics problems, and animation in modern films.

1976

Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman published their famous 'key exchange' algorithm in an article called "New Directions in Cryptography". This algorithm was the first published algorithm that allowed two parties, communicating only over an insecure medium, to agree on a secret that they both knew but on which anyone evesdropping their communication could not discover. This secret could then be used as a key for further secure communication. It is widely regarded as the beginning of public key cryptography, as until its publication many regarded secure communication in this manner as impossible.

Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange does not provide a mechanism to authenticate the other party in the communication, and so is vulnerable to a "man in the middle" attack - one where a third party is able to modify the communications between the two parties. RSA, published in 1977, provided a solution to this problem.

1977 "There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home." Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp..
1977

Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman (their surnames making 'RSA') described an asymmetric algorithm for public key cryptography. This algorithm is widely used for encrypting traffic on the modern internet. Its strength is derived from the belief that there are no efficient algorithms for finding integer factors of large numbers.

It should be noted that a similar algorith was devised by Clifford Cocks in 1973, while working for the British intellegence service at GCHQ. The discovery was, however, classified and not released until 1997 - by which time RSA had firmly planted itself into history.

1977 Historically Arpanet computers had communicated via a 'Network Control Protocol' but this protocol was inadequate and had serious problems, especially when dealing with busier networks. TCP was first outlined in a paper by Bob Kahn (from Standford) and Vinton Cerf (from DARPA) in 1974. In 1978 the IP header was split off from TCP, allowing network routers to deal with just the (much simpler) IP protocol. On January 1 1983 the internet was defined as the collection of computers communicating via TCP/IP.
1977 - May Apple II computer introduced.
1978 - June 8

Introduction of 8086 by Intel, the first commercially successful 16 bit processor. It was too expensive to implement in early computers, so an 8 bit version was developed (the 8088), which was chosen by IBM for the first IBM PC. This ensured the success of the x86 family of processors that succeeded the 8086 since they and their clones are used in every IBM PC compatible computer.

The available clock frequencies are 4.77, 8 and 10 MHz. It has an instruction set of about 300 operations. At introduction the fastest processor was the 8 MHz version which achieved 0.8 MIPs and contained 29,000 transistors.

1978 Arcade Video game 'Space Invaders' released, starting a video game craze that has continued ever since. In 1979 Atari's Asteroids proved incredibly popular - one notable improvement over Space Invaders was that it allowed the players to record hi-scores, for other players to spend hours trying to beat. By 1982 many of the 'classics' had been released, defender and pac-man, to name a few. The industry was worth $5 billion a year - more than the U.S. movie industry. Although Pong, of 1973, and similar games had been around for several years none were really interesting enough to capture the public - Space Invaders, however, had everything, in a fast action game that pitted you against the computer.
1979 Language Ada introduced by Jean Ichbiah and team at Honeywell.
1979 - June 1 Introduction of 8088, a step down from the 8086 as it contains just an 8 bit data bus - but this makes it cheaper to implement in computers.
1979 Commodore PET released. Based on a 1 MHz 6502 processor it displayed monochrome text on a 9" monitor and had just 8 Kb of RAM. Programs were loaded from audio cassette. Priced ?569. For ?776 you could purchase a version with 16 Kb of RAM, while for ?914 you could get a 32 Kb of RAM.
1979 compact disk was invented.
1979 The 68000 Microprocessor launched by Motorola. Used by Apple for the Macintosh and by Atari for the ST series. Later versions of the processor include the 68020 used in the Macintosh II.
1979 IBM saw its computer market dominance being eaten into by the new personal computers, such as the Apple and the Commodore PET. IBM therefore started work on their own P.C. This computer had to be a state-of-the-art machine in order to compete, but had to be produced very quickly due to the amazing growth of competitors. It was therefore decided to use many third party parts to reduce development time, and Microsoft were commissioned to write the Operating System (see October 1980). When finished this computer was released as the IBM PC. on 12 August 1981
1980 "DOS addresses only 1 Megabyte of RAM because we cannot imagine any applications needing more." Microsoft on the development of DOS.
1980 - October

Development of MS-DOS/PC-DOS began. Microsoft (known mainly for their programming languages) were commissioned to write the Operating System for the PC, Digital Research failed to get the contract (there is much legend as to the real reason for this). DR's Operating System, CP/M-86 was later shipped but it was actually easier to adapter older CP/M programs to DOS rather than CP/M-86, and CP/M-86 cost $495. As Microsoft didn't have an operating system to sell they bought Seattle Computer Product's 86-DOS which had been written by Tim Paterson earlier that year (86-DOS was also know as Q-DOS, Quick & Dirty Operating System, it was a more-or-less 16bit version of CP/M). The rights were actually bought in July 1981. It is reputed that IBM found over 300 bugs in the code when they subjected the operating system to their testing, and re-wrote much of the code.

Tim Paterson's DOS 1.0 was 4000 lines of assembler.

1980 - Early Sinclair ZX80 was released for under ?100.
1981 - April

The Xerox 8010 ('Star') System, the first commerical system to use a WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointing Devices) graphic user interface - from which all modern WIMP and Windowing systems have evolved. Apple used these concepts when designing the interface for the Apple Macintosh (see January 1984), and later alleged that Microsoft copied their 'look and feel' when designing Microsoft Windows.

The Xerox 'Star' was the commercialisation of the 'Alto', which had available internally inside Xerox PARC since 1973. Sales of the 'Star' were terrible and the system rapidly fell into obscurity.

1981 "640k ought to be enough for anybody.", Bill Gates
1981 Sinclair ZX81 was released, for a similar price to the ZX80 (see 1980).
1981? Introduction of 80186/80188. These are rarely used on PCs as they incorporate a built in DMA and timer chip - and thus have register addresses incompatible with other IBM PCs.
1981 - August 12 IBM Announced PC, the standard model was sold for $2880. This had 64Kb of RAM, a mono display and the cassette drive was an optional extra. Two 160Kb single sided floppy drives could be added. The machines success was largely due to the openness of its specification, anyone could produce new and improved parts or models of the computer - the original IBM PC usually had an INTEL processor, Tandon disk drives and an operating system from Microsoft. 100,000 orders were taken by Christmas. The first one sold in the U.K. cost ?2080. An option of operating systems was actually available, but IBM/Microsoft's PC-DOS was by far the cheapest at $39.95.
1981 - August 12 MDA (Mono Display Adapter, text only) introduced with IBM PC.
1981 - August 12

MS-DOS 1.0., PC-DOS 1.0.

Microsoft (known mainly for their programming languages) were commissioned by IBM to write the operating system, they bought a program called 86-DOS from Tim Paterson which was loosely based on CP/M 80. The final program from Microsoft was marketed by IBM as PC-DOS and by Microsoft as MS-DOS, collaboration on subsequent versions continued until version 5.0 in 1991.

Compared to modern versions of DOS version 1 was very basic, the most notable difference was the presence of just 1 directory, the root directory, on each disk. Subdirectories were not supported until version 2.0 (March, 1983).

MS-DOS (and PC-DOS) was the main operating system for all IBM-PC compatible computers until 1995 when Windows '95 began to take over the market, and Microsoft turned its back on MS-DOS (leaving MS-DOS 6.22 from 1993 as the last version written - although the DOS Shell in Windows '95 calls itself MS-DOS version 7.0, and has some improved features like long filename support). According to Microsoft, in 1994, MS-DOS was running on some 100 million computers world-wide.

1981 Pacman was written. Originally it was going to be called Puckman, but the name was changed to reduce the damage that could be done by changing the P to an F with a black marker.
1982 Introduction of BBC Micro. Based on the 6502 processor it was a very popular computer for British schools up to the development of the Acorn Archimedes (in 1987). In 1984 the government offered to pay half the cost of such computers in an attempt to promote their use in secondary education.
1982 - January Commodore 64 released, costing just $595.
1982 - February 1

80286 Released. It supports clock frequencies of up to 20 MHz and implements a new mode of operation, protected mode - allowing access to more memory (up to 16 Mbytes compared to 1 MB for the 8086. The virtual address space can appear to be up to 1 GB through the use of virtual memory). It includes an extended instruction set to cope with this new mode of operation.

At introduction the fastest version ran at 12.5 MHz, achieved 2.7 MIPs and contained 134,000 transistors.

1982 Compaq released their IBM PC compatible Compaq Portable.
1982 MIDI, Musical Instrument Digital Interface, (pronounced "middy") published by International MIDI Association (IMA). The MIDI standard allows computers to be connected to instruments like keyboards.
1982 Red Book on Audio CDs was introduced by Sony and Phillips. This was the beginning of the Compact Disk, it was released in Japan and then in Europe and America a year later.
1982 - March MS-DOS 1.25, PC-DOS 1.1
1982 - April The Sinclair ZX Spectrum was announced, released later in the year. It is based on the Z80 chip from Zilog, it ran at 3.5 MHz and had an 8 colour graphics display. You could by a 16 Kb version for ?125 or a 48 Kb version for ?175 - remarkable prices when compared to the ?1000+ IBM PC.
1982 - May IBM launch the double-sided 320K floppy disk drives.
1982 - December IBM buy 12% of Intel.
1983 - January 1 TCP/IP became the official protocol of ARPANET (which became the Internet). TCP/IP still forms the basis of the Internet today.
1983 - January IBM PC gets European launch at Which Computer Show.
1983 - January Apple announced their 'LISA' computer in January, to be released in June. The LISA was one of the first computers to be sold with a GUI (graphical user interface), however it did not sell well. The main problems were the 10 thousand dollar price tag and the slow interface - the GUI based operating system struggled on the 5 MHz CPU. The GUI was based on ideas gained by Steve Jobs who saw the Alto while visting Xerox PARC.
1983 Borland Formed.
1983 - Spring IBM XT released, it was fitted with the 8086 (which could be replaced with an NEC V20 or V30) and had room for an 8087 maths co-processor to be installed. It also had a 10Mb hard disk, 128K of RAM, one floppy drive, mono monitor and a printer, all for $5000.
1983 - March MS-DOS 2.0, PC-DOS 2.0
Introduced with the IBM XT this version included a UNIX style hierarchical sub-directory structure, and altered the way in which programs could load and access files on the disk.
1983 - May MS-DOS 2.01
1983 - October IBM released PC Junior in an attempt to get further into the home market, it cost just $699. Cheaper alternatives from other companies were more preferable to the home buyer, but businesses continued to buy IBM. However this meant that the PC Jr. was not a great sucess.
1983 - October PC-DOS 2.1 (for PC Jr). Like the PC Jr this was not a great success and quickly disappeared from the market.
1983 - October MS-DOS 2.11
1984 DNS (Domain Name Server) introduced to the Internet, which then consisted of about 1000 hosts.
1984 Turbo Pascal Introduced by Borland (see PASCAL, 1967).
1984 Hewlett-Packard release the immensely popular Laserjet printer, by 1993 they had sold over 10 million Laserjet printers and over 20 million printers overall. HP were also pioneering inkjet technology.
1984 - January Apple Macintosh Released. Based on the 8 MHz version of the Motorola 68000 processor. The 68000 can address 16 Mb of RAM, a noticeable improvement over Intel's 8088/8086 family. The Apple achieved 0.7 MIPs and originally came with just 128Kb of RAM. It was fitted with a monochrome video adapter.
1984 IBM AT released. This incorporates a larger (16-bit) bus for expansion slots. Unfortunately it wasn't well specified, the ISA standard was eventually made (in 1991) to cope with this - but not until some ATs had been produced with buses that run far quicker the 8.33 MHz laid down in the ISA standard. Some AT compatible systems designed before the standard was introduced ran the bus at 12.5 MHz which causes some expansion cards to run hot, therefore becoming less efficient and slower therefore eventually 'tripping over' and violently crashing the computer.
1984 - August MS-DOS 3.0, PC-DOS 3.0
Released for the IBM AT, it supported larger hard disks as well as High Density (1.2 MB) 5?" floppy disks.
1984 - September Apple released a 512KB version of the Macintosh - but there were no other major enhancements over the original (see Jan. 1984).
1984 - October Sinclair ZX Spectrum+ released. Similar specifications to the 48 Kb version of the original ZX (see April 1982) it cost ?179.
1984 - End Compaq started the development of the IDE interface (see also 1989). IDE = Intelligent Drive Electronics. This standard was designed specially for the IBM PC and can achieve high data transfer rates through a 1:1 interleave factor and caching by the actual disk controller - the bottleneck is often the old AT bus and the drive may read data far quicker than the bus can accept it, so the cache is used as a buffer. Theoretically 1MB/s is possible but 700KB/s is perhaps more typical of such drives. This standard has been adopted by many other models of computer, such the Acorn Archimedes A4000 and above. A later improvement was EIDE, laid down in 1989, which also removed the maximum drive size of 528MB and increased data transfer rates.
1985 - January Postscript introduced by Adobe Systems, used in the Apple Laserwriter printer. Adopted by IBM for their use in March 1987.
1985 Tetris was written by Russian Alexey Pazhitnov. It was later released for various western games machines, the jewel in the crown being its inclusion with Nintendo's Gameboy in 1989. Alexey made nothing from the game, since under the Communist Regime it was owned by the people - although after the collapse of Communism he was able to move to the USA where he now works for Microsoft.
1985 CD-ROM, invented by Phillips, produced in collaboration with Sony.
1985 EGA released.
1985 - March MS-DOS 3.1, PC-DOS 3.1
This was the first version of DOS to provide network support, and provides some new functions to handle networking.
1985 - May Sinclair ZX Spectrum 128 announced, released in February 1986. See Feb. 1986.
1985 - July 23

The Commodore Amiga (later known as the Amiga 1000) was announced, although it was not released until September. Amiga had a turbulent history, with no real revenue stream to support their development. After a period of legal wranglings with Atari, Amiga were bought by Commodore. Their product was finally completed and brought to market under the 'Commodore Amiga' name. The system cost ?1500, a high price at the time (comparable to the pricey Apple Macintosh). You got what you paid for though, it was an impressive machine for the era. It featured a colour graphical user interface, a 16 bit processor, TV output and 256K of RAM. It also included a 'bit-blitter' for moving graphical data without tieing up the main CPU.

In 1987 the Amiga 1000 was followed with the higher specification A2000, and the cheaper A500. It was the A500 which really pushed the Amiga brand forwards, spurred on by the development of various games for the platform (and to the detriment of the Atari ST which, until the A500, was the popular choice among gamers).

1985 - October 17

80386 DX released. It supports clock frequencies of up to 33 MHz and can address up to 4 GB of memory and virtual memory of up to 64 TERABYTES! It also includes a bigger instruction set than the 80286.

At the date of release the fastest version ran at 20 MHz and achieved 6.0 MIPs. It contained 275,000 transistors.

1985 - October Version 2.25 included support for foreign character sets, and was marketed in the Far East.
1985 - November Microsoft Windows Launched. Not really widely used until version 3, released in 1990, Windows required DOS to run and so was not a complete operating system (until Windows '95, released on August 21, 1995). It merely provided a G.U.I. similar to that of the Macintosh., in fact so similar that Apple tried to sue Microsoft for copying the 'look and feel' of their operating system. This court case was not dropped until August 1997.
1985 - December MS-DOS 3.2, PC-DOS 3.2

This version was the first to support 3?" disks, although only the 720KB ones. Version 3.2 remained the standard version until 1987 when version 3.3 was released with the IBM PS/2.

1985 - End LIM EMS (memory standard) introduced by Lotus, Intel and Microsoft. The first version introduced was version 3.2!
1986 - January Apple released another enhanced version of the Macintosh (the Macintosh Plus) - this one could cope with 4 Mb of RAM and had a SCSI adapter.
1986 - February Sinclair ZX Spectrum 128 released. It had 128 Kb of RAM, but little other improvement over the original ZX (except improved sound capabilities). Later models were produced by Amstrad - but they showed no major advances in technology.
1986 - April Apple released another version of the Macintosh (the Macintosh 512Ke) which was basically the same as the 512K of Sept. 1984.
1986 - September Amstrad Announced Amstrad PC 1512, a cheap and powerful PC. Cost was just under ?1000, it included a slightly enhanced CGA graphics adapter, 512Kb RAM (upgradable to 640Kb), 8086 processor (upgradable to NEC V30) and a 20Mb harddisk (optional). Amstrad had previous success with the PCW. To ensure the computer was accessible they made sure the manuals could be read by everyone, and also included DR's GEM desktop (a WIMP system) and a mouse to try to make to machine more user friendly. It was sold in many high street shops and was a complete success, being bought by Business and Home users alike. N.B. This was the author's family's first Home computer, with a Monochrome monitor and harddisk it cost just under ?1000.
1987? Introduction of Acorn Archimedes.
1987 Connection Machine, an interesting supercomputer which instead of integration of circuits operates up to 64,000 fairly ordinary microprocessors - using parallel architecture - at the same time, in its most powerful form it can do somewhere in the region of 2 billion operations per second.
1987 Microsoft Windows 2 released. It was more popular than the original version but it was nothing special mind you, Windows 3 (see 1990) was the first really useful version.
1987 Fractal Image Compression Algorithm calculated by English mathematician Michael F. Barnsley, allowing digital images to be compressed and stored using fractal codes rather than normal image data. In theory this allows more efficient storage of the images.
1987 - March 2

Macintosh II & Macintosh SE released. The SE was still based on the 68000, but could cope with 4 Mb of RAM and had a SCSI adapter, similar specifications to the Macintosh Plus of Jan. 1986.

The Macintosh II was based on the newer Motorola 68020, that ran at 16 MHz and achieved a much more respectable 2.6 MIPs (comparable to an 80286). It too had a SCSI adapter but was also fitted with a colour video adapter.

1987 - April 2 PS/2 Systems introduced by IBM. The first models were released on this date. The PS/2 Model 30 based on an 8086 processor and an old XT bus, Models 50 and 60 based on the 80286 processor and the Model 80 based on the 80386 processor. These used the 3 1/2" 'microfloppies', storing 1.44Mb on each (although the Model 30 could only use the low 720Kb density). These systems (except the Model 30) included a completely new bus, the MCA (Micro Channel Architecture) bus, which did not catch on as it did not provide support for old-style 16-Bit AT bus expansion cards. The MCA bus did show many improvements in design and speed over the ISA bus most PCs used, and IBM (if no-one else) still use it in some of their machines. The PS/2 series were very successful - selling well over 2 million machines in less than 2 years.
1987 VGA released (designed for the PS/2) by IBM.
1987 MCGA released (only for low end PS/2s, i.e. the Model 30) by IBM.
1987 The 8514/A introduced by IBM. This was a graphics card that included its own processor to speed up the drawing of common objects, to take the load othe main CPU.
1987 - April MS-DOS 3.3, PC-DOS 3.3
Released with the IBM PS/2 this version included support for the High Density (1.44MB) 3?" disks. It also supported hard disk partitions, splitting a hard disk into 2 or more logical drives.
1987 - April OS/2 Launched by Microsoft and IBM. A later enhancement, OS/2 Warp provided many of the 32-bit enhancements boasted by Windows '95 - but several years earlier, yet the product failed to dominate the market in the way Windows '95 did 8 year later.
1987 - August

AD-LIB soundcard released. Not widely supported until a software company, Taito, released several games fully supporting AD-LIB - the word then spread how much the special sound effects and music enhanced the games.

Adlib, a Canadian Company, had a virtual monopoly until 1989 when the SoundBlaster card was released.

1987 - October/November Compaq DOS (CPQ-DOS) v3.31 released to cope with disk partitions >32MB. Used by some other OEMs, but not distributed by Microsoft.
1987 - End LIM EMS v4.0
1988 First optical chip developed, it uses light instead of electricity to increase processing speed.
1988 XMS (memory standard) introduced.
1988 EISA Bus standard introduced.
1988 WORM (Write Once Read Many times) - disks marketed for first time by IBM.
1988 - June 16 80386 SX released as a cheaper alternative -to the 80386 DX. It had a narrower (16 bit) time multiplexed bus. This reduction in pins, and the easier integration with 16 bit devices made the cost savings.
1988 - July/August? PC-DOS 4.0, MS-DOS 4.0

Version 3.4 - 4.x are confusing due to lack of correlation between IBM & Microsoft and also the USA & Europe. Several 'Internal Use only' versions were also produced.

This version reflected increases in hardware capabilities, it supported hard drives greater than 32 MB (up to 2 GB) and also EMS memory.

This version was not properly tested and was bug ridden, causing system crashes and loss of data. The original release was IBM's, but Microsoft's version 4.0 (in October) was no better and version 4.01 was released (in November) to correct this, then version 4.01a (in April 1989) as a further improvement. However many people could not trust this and reverted to version 3.3 while they waited for the complete re-write (version 5 - 3 years later). Beta's of Microsoft's version 4.0 were apparently shipped as early as '86 & '87.

1988 - September IBM PS/2 Model 30 286 released, based on an 80286 processor and the old AT bus - IBM abandoned the MCA bus, released less than 18 months earlier! Other IBM machines continued to use the MCA bus.
1988 - October Common Access Method committee (CAM) formed. They published the ATA standard on the 1st of April 1989 (IDE/ATA disks had been around for a while but wasn't previously standardised), along with enhancements to allow for larger disks that before.
1988 - October Macintosh IIx released. It was based on a new processor, the Motorola 68030. It still ran at 16 MHz but now achieved 3.9 MIPs. It could now cope with 128 MB of RAM.
1988 - November MS-DOS 4.01, PC-DOS 4.01
This corrected many of the bugs seen in version 4.0, but many users simply switched back to version 3.3 and waited for a properly re-written and fully tested version - which did not come until version 5 in June 1991. Support for disk partitions >32Mb.
1989 World Wide Web, invented by Tim Berners-Lee who saw the need for a global information exchange that would allow physicists to collaborate on research (he was working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland, at the time). The Web was a result of the integration of hypertext and the Internet. The hyperlinked pages not only provided information but provide transparent access to older Internet facilities such as ftp, telnet, Gopher, WAIS and USENET. He was awarded the Institute of Physics' 1997 Duddell Medal for this contribution to the advancement of knowledge. The Web started as a text-only interface, but NCSA Mosaic later presented a graphical interface for it and its popularity exploded as it became accessible to the novice user. This explosion started in ernest during 1993, a year in which web traffic over the Internet increased by 300,000%.
1989 CD-I released by Phillips and Sony.
1989 - January Macintosh SE/30 released. Like the SE of March 1987 it only had a monochrome display adapter but was fitted with the newer 68030 processor.
1989 - April 1 Command set for E-IDE drives was defined by CAM (formed Oct. 1988). This supports drives over 528MB in size. Early controllers often imposed a limit of 2.1GB, then later ones 8.4GB. Newer controllers support much higher capacities. Drives greater in size than 2.1GB must be partitioned under DOS since the drive structure (laid down in MS-DOS 4) used by DOS and even Windows '95 prevents partitions bigger than 2.1GB. EIDE controllers also support the ATAPI interface that is used by most CD-ROM drives produced after its introduction. Newer implementations to EIDE, designed for the PCI bus, can achieve data transfer at up to 16.67 MB/s. A later enhancement, called UDMA, allows transfer rates of up to 33.3 MB/s.
1989 - March The Macintosh IIcx released, with the same basic capabilities of the IIx.
1989 - April 10

80486 DX released by Intel. It contains the equivalent of about 1.2 million transistors. At the time of release the fastest version ran at 25 MHz and achieved up to 20 MIPs.

Later versions, such as the DX/2 and DX/4 versions achieved internal clock rates of up to 100 MHz.

1989 - September Macintosh IIci released based on a faster version of the 68030 - now running at 25 MHz, and achieved 6.3 MIPs. Macintosh also released the portable - which went back to the original 68000 processor (but now ran it at 16 MHz to achieve 1.3 MIPs). It had a monochrome display.
1989 - November Release of Sound Blaster Card, by Creative Labs, its success was ensured by maintaining compatibility with the widely supported AD-LIB soundcard of 1987.
1990 Consortium of major SVGA card manufactures (called Video Electronic Standard Association, VESA) was formed and then introduced VESA SVGA Standard.
1990 - March Macintosh IIfx released. Based on a 40 MHz version of the 68030 it achieved 10 MIPs. It also featured a faster SCSI adapter, which could transfer 3.0 Mb/sec.
1990 - May 22 Introduction of Windows 3.0 by Bill Gates & Microsoft. It is true multitasking (or pretends to be on computers less than an 80386, by operating in 'Real' mode) system. It maintained compatibility with MS-DOS, on an 80386 it even allows such programs to multitask - which they were not designed to do. This created a real threat to the Macintosh and despite a similar product, IBM's OS/2, it was very successful. Various improvements were made, versions 3.1, 3.11 - but the next major step did not come until Windows '95 in 1995 which relied much more heavily on the features of the 80386 and provided support for 32 bit applications.
1990 - October Macintosh Classic released, an identical replacement to the Macintosh Plus of January 1986. Also came the Macintosh IIsi which ran a 68030 processor at 20 MHz to achieve 5.0 MIPs, and also a 256 colour video adapter.
1990 - November Macintosh LC released. This ran a 68020 processor at 16 MHz to achieve 2.6 MIPs, it had a slightly improved SCSI adapter and a 256 colour video adapter.
1990 - November MPC (Multimedia PC) Level 1 specification published by a council of companies including Microsoft and Creative Labs. This specified the minimum standards for a Multimedia IBM PC. The MPC level 1 specification originally required a 80286/12 MHz PC, but this was later increased to a 80386SX/16 MHz computer as an 80286 was realised to be inadequate. It also required a CD-ROM drive capable of 150 KB/sec (single speed) and also of Audio CD output. Companies can, after paying a fee, use the MPC logo on their products.
1990 - November ATA spec. final proposal submitted to ANSI.
1991 Introduction of ISA standard, although it was simply called the AT bus until after competing standards were launched that needed differentiating. Although the the AT bus had been used for many years it hadn't been properly standardised, causing all sorts of problems as newer PCs clocked the bus at ever faster speeds.
1991 Borland took over Ashton-Tate Corporation & the Dbase program used by many businesses and individuals.
1991 - April 22 80486 SX released as cheaper alternative to 80486 DX - the key difference being the lack of an integrated F.P.U.
1991 - May Introduction of Sound Blaster Pro.
1991 - June MS-DOS 5.0, PC-DOS 5.0

In order to promote OS/2 Bill Gates took every opportunity after its release to say 'DOS is dead', however the development of DOS 5.0 lead to the permanent dropping of OS/2 development.

This version, after the mess of version 4, was properly tested through the distribution of Beta versions to over 7,500 users. This version included the ability to load device drivers and TSR programs above the 640KB boundary (into UMBs and the HMA), freeing more RAM for programs. This version marked the end of collaboration between Microsoft and IBM on DOS.

1991 - August Linux is born with the following post to the Usenet Newsgroup comp.os.minix:
Hello everybody out there using minix-
I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be
big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones.
The post was by a Finnish college student, Linus Torvalds, and this hobby grew from these humble beginnings into one of the most widely used UNIX-like operating systems in the world today. It now runs on many different types of computer, including the Sun SPARC and the Compaq Alpha, as well as many ARM, MIPS, PowerPC and Motorola 68000 based computers.

In 1992, the GNU project (http://www.gnu.org/) adopted the Linux kernel for use on GNU systems while they waited for the development of their own (Hurd) kernel to be completed. The GNU project's aim is to provide a complete and free UNIX like operating system, combining the Linux or Hurd platform with the a complete suite of free software to run on it. In order to allow it to carry the GNU name, the Linux kernel copyright was changed to the GNU Public License Agreement (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html) on the 1st of February 1992.

1992 "Windows NT addresses 2 Gigabytes of RAM which is more than any application will ever need". Microsoft on the development of Windows NT
1992 Introduction of CD-I launched by Phillips.
1992 - April Introduction of Windows 3.1
1992 - May Wolfenstein 3D released by Id Software Inc.
1992 - June Sound Blaster 16 ASP Introduced.
1993 Commercial providers were allowed to sell internet connections to individuals. Its use exploded, especially with the new interface provided by the World-Wide Web (see 1989) and NCSA Mosaic.
1993 Doom was released by Id Software Inc. The PC began to be considered as a serious games playing machine. This was reinforced by another 1993 releases including "Sam and Max Hit the Road", "Alone in the Dark" and "The 7th Guest".
1993 Trilobyte's The 7th Guest marked the beginning of a new level in adventure gaming, with full motion video making a CD-ROM drive an absolute essential. The game was huge, actually filling 2 CDs with blood and gore filled graphics of devils and ghosts. For many PC owners it was this game that finally spurred them into buying a CD-ROM drive for their computer.
1993 Novell purchased Digital Research, DR-DOS became Novell DOS.
1993 - March 22 Intel Pentium released. At the time it was only available in 60 & 66 MHz versions which achieved up to 100 MIPs, with over 3.1 million transistors.
1993 - May MPC Level 2 specification introduced (see November 1990). This was designed to allow playback of a 15 fps video in a window 320x240 pixels. The key difference is the requirement of a CD-ROM drive capable of 300KB/sec (double speed). Also with Level 2 is the requirement for products to be tested by the MPC council, making MPC Level 2 compatibility a stamp of certification.
1993 - July 27 Windows NT 3.1, the first release of the Windows NT series, was released. Its name was chosen to match the current version of the 16 bit version of Microsoft Windows. NT contained a completely new 'kernel' at the core of the operating system, unlike Windows 3.x it was not based on top of MS-DOS. It was designed to be platform independant; original development was targetted at the Intel i860 processor but it was ported to MIPS and then to Intel's popular 80386 processor. The 'Win32' API was developed for Windows NT, providing a native 32 bit API that programmers used to the 16 bit versions of Microsoft Windows would be at home with.
1993 - December

MS-DOS 6.0. This included a Hard-Disk compression program called DoubleSpace, but a small computing company called 'Stac' claimed that DoubleSpace was partly a copy of their Compression Program, Stacker. After paying damages Microsoft withdrew DoubleSpace from MS-DOS 6.2, releasing a new program - DriveSpace - with MS-DOS version 6.22. In operation and programming interface DriveSpace remains virtually identical to DoubleSpace. MS-DOS 6.22 remains the last version of MS-DOS released, since Microsoft turned its efforts to Windows '95. Windows '95 (and later) DOS shell reports itself as DOS 7 - and includes a few enhancements, e.g. support for long filenames.

1994 - March 7 Intel Release the 90 & 100 MHz versions of the Pentium Processor.
1994 - March 14 Linus Torvalds released version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel.
1994 - September PC-DOS 6.3 Basically the same as version 5.0 this release by IBM included more bundled software, such as Stacker (the program that caused Microsoft so much embarrassment) and anti-virus software.
1994 - September 21 Microsoft released Windows NT 3.5. This included many features missing from the original 3.1 release, including support for compressed files and Netware compatibility.
1994 - October 10

Intel Release the 75 MHz version of the Pentium Processor.

1994 Doom II released. This reflected the rapidly increasing quality of games available for the PC - an opinion supported by other major releases in 1994, such as "Alone in the Dark 2", "Theme Park", "Magic Carpet" and "Little Big Adventure" which also helped demonstrate the diversity of games available on the platform. This success of the PC as a games platform was partly due to and partly a cause of significantly increased PC ownership among the 'general public' during the early/mid 1990s.
1994 Netscape 1.0 was written as an alternative browser to NCSA Mosaic.
1994 Command & Conquer released. Other (less significant releases) for the PC included Star Trek 'The Next Generation', Full Throttle, Descent and Terminal Velocity. The advent of 3D graphics cards from Videologic and 3Dfx helped the platform's games status further.
1995 - March Linus released Linux Kernel v1.2.0 (Linux'95).
1995 - March 27 Intel release the 120 MHz version of the Pentium processor.
1995 - May 30 The main feature of Windows NT 3.51 was a version supporting IBM's Power PC processor. Delays in the release of the processor meant delays in the release of Windows NT 3.51 (NT 3.51 only exists because the processor wasn't ready in time for NT 3.5). As the development team waited for the release of the processor they fixed bugs in the existing codebase. This made NT 3.51 reliable and therefore popular with customers.
1995 - June 1 Intel release the 133 MHz version of the Pentium processor.
1995 - August 21 [poss. 23] Windows '95 was launched by Bill Gates & Microsoft. Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows '95 is an entire operating system - it does not rely on MS-DOS (although some remnants of the old operating system still exist). Windows '95 was written specially for the 80386 and compatible computers to make 'full' use of its 32 bit processing and multitasking capabilities, and thus in some respects it is much more similar to Windows NT than Windows 3.x. Both Windows 95 and Windows NT provide the Win32 API for programmers, and when Windows NT 4 was released it had an almost identical user interface to Windows 95. Unfortunately, in order to maintain backwards compatibility, Windows 95 doesn't impose the same memory protection and security measures that NT does and so suffers from much worse stability, reliability and security. Despite being remarkable similar in function to OS/2 Warp (produced by IBM and Microsoft several years earlier, but marketed by IBM), Windows '95 has proved very popular.
1995 - November 1 Pentium Pro released. At introduction it achieved a clock speed of up to 200 MHz (there were also 150, 166 and 180 MHz variants released on the same date), but is basically the same as the Pentium in terms of instruction set and capabilities. It achieves 440 MIPs and contains 5.5 million transistors - this is nearly 2400 times as many as the first microprocessor, the 4004 - and capable of 70,000 times as many instructions per second.
1995 - December 28 CompuServe blocked access to over 200 sexually explicit sites, partly to avoid confrontation with the German Government. Access to all but 5 was restored on Feb. 13 1996.
1995 - December JavaScript development announced by Netscape.
1996 Quake released - representing the dramatic increases in both software and hardware technology since Doom, of 3 years previous. Other notable releases included "Civilization 2", "Command & Conquer - Red Alert", "Grand Prix 2" and "Tomb Raider". On the more controversial front "Battle Cruiser 3000" was also released, but its advertising had to be censored.
1996 - January Netscape Navigator 2.0 released. First browser to support JavaScript.
1996 - January 4 Intel release the 150 & 166 MHz versions of the Pentium Processor. They contain the equivalent of over 3.3 million transistors.
1996 Windows '95 OSR2 (OEM System Release 2) was released - partly to fix bugs found in release 1 - but only to computer retailers for sale with new systems. There were actually two separated releases of Windows 95 OSR2 before the introduction of Windows '98, the second of which contained both USB and FAT32 support - the main selling points of Windows '98. FAT32 is a new filing system that provides support for disk paritions bigger than 2.1GB and is better at coping with large disks (especially in terms of wasted space).
1996 - June 9 Linux 2.0 released. 2.0 was a significant improvement over the earlier versions: it was the first to support multiple architectures (originally developed for the Intel 386 processor, it now supported the Digital Alpha and would very soon support Sun SPARC many others). It was also the first stable kernel to support SMP, kernel modules, and much more.
1996 - July 31 Windows NT 4.0 was released. The main feature was an update of the user interface to match Windows 95.
1996 - October 6 Intel release the 200 Mhz version of the Pentium Processor.
1997 Tim Berners-Lee awarded the Institute of Physics' 1997 Duddell Medal for inventing the World Wide Web (see 1989).
1997 "Grand Theft Auto", "Quake 2" and "Blade Runner" were all released while Lara Croft returned in "Tomb Raider 2". As the standards for graphics kept increasing, 3d graphics cards were beginning to become mandatory for games players.
1997 - January 8 Intel released Pentium MMX (originally 166 and 200 Mhz versions), for games and multimedia enhancement. To most people MMX is simply another 3-letter acronym and people wearing coloured suits on Intel ads, and to programmers in meant an even further expanded instruction set that provides, amongst other functions, enhanced 64-bit support - but software needs to be specially written to work with the new functions. A major rival clone, the AMD-K6-MMX containing a similar instruction set, caused a legal challenge from Intel on the right to use the trademarked name MMX - it was not upheld.
1997 - May 11 IBM's Deep Blue, the first computer to beat a reigning World Chess Champion, Gary Kasparov, in a full chess match. The computer had played him previously - loosing 5/6 games in February 1996.
1997 - May 7 Intel Release their Pentium II processor (233, 266 and 300 Mhz versions). It featured, as well as an increased instruction set, a much larger on-chip cache.
1997 - June 2 Intel release the 233 MHz Pentium MMX.
1997 - August 6

After 18 months of losses Apple were in serious financial trouble. Microsoft invested in Apple, buying 100,000 non-voting shares worth $150 million - a decision not approved of by many Apple owners! One of the conditions was that Apple were to drop their long running court case - attempting to sue Microsoft for copying the look and feel of their operating system when designing Windows.

There is some contention as to whether Apple were justified in sueing Microsoft, given that they themselves used some of the ideas from the XEROX 'Star' system when desiging their G.U.I. - however the similarities between MacOS and Windows are much more pronouced than those between the XEROX system and the Mac.

1998 - February Intel released of 333 MHz Pentium II processor. Code-named Deschutes these processors use the new 0.25 micron manufacturing process to run faster and generate less heat than before.
1998 - April A U.S. court has finally banned the long-running game of buying domain names relating to trademarks and then at selling them for extortionate prices to the companies who own the trademark. The case was based around a man from Illinois who bought www.panavision.com in 1995 and has just tried to sell it for $13,000. The current going commercial rate for domain name registration is around $100.
1998 - June 25 Microsoft released Windows '98. Some U.S. attorneys tried to block its release since the new O/S interfaces closely with other programs such as Microsoft Internet Explorer and so effectively closes the market of such software to other companies. Microsoft fought back with a letter to the White House suggesting that 26 of its industry allies said that a delay in the release of the new O/S could damage the U.S. economy. The main selling points of Windows '98 were its support for USB and its support for disk paritions greater than 2.1GB.
1999 - Jan 25 Linux Kernel 2.2.0 Released. The number of people running Linux is estimated at over 10million, making it an not only important operating system in the Unix world, but an increasingly important one in the PC world.
1999 - Feb 22 AMD release K6-III 400MHz version, 450 to OEMS. In some tests it outperforms soon-to-be released Intel P-III. It contains approximately 23 million transistors, and is based on 100Mhz super socket 7 motherboards, an improvement on the 66MHz buses their previous chips were based on. This helps its performance when compared to Intel's Pentium II - which also uses a 100MHz bus speed.
1999 - Aug 31 Apple release the PowerMac G4. Its powered by the PowerPC G4 chip from Apple, Motorola and IBM. Available in 400MHz, 450MHz and 500MHz versions its claimed to be the first personal computer to be capable of over one billion floating-point operations per second.
1999 - Nov 29 AMD release Athlon 750MHz version.
2000 - Jan 14 US Government announce restrictions on exporting Cryptography are relaxed (although not removed). This allows many US Companies to stop the long running, and rather ridiculous process of having to create US and International copies of their software.
2000 - Jan 19 Transmeta launch their new 'Crusoe' chips. Designed for laptops these prvoide comparible performance to the mid-range Pentium II chips, but consume a tiny fraction of the power. They are a new and exciting competitor to Intel in the x86 market.
2000 - Feb 17 Offical Launch of Windows 2000 - Microsoft's replacement for Windows 95/98 and Windows NT. Claimed to be faster and more reliable than previous versions of Windows. It is actually a descendant of the NT series, and so the trade-off for increased reliability is that it won't run some old DOS-based games. To keep the home market happy Microsoft also released Windows ME, the newest member of the 95/98 series.
2000 - March 6 AMD Release the Athlon 1GHz.
2000 - March 8 Intel release very limited supplies of the 1GHz Pentium III chip.
2000 - June 20 British Telecom (BT) claim the rights to hyperlinks on the basis of a US patent granted in 1989. Similar patents in the rest of the world have now expired. Their claim is widely believed to be absurd since Ted Nelson wrote about hyperlinks in 1965, and this is where Tim Berners Lee says he got the ideas for the World Wide Web from. This is just another in the line of similar incredulous cases - for example amazon.com's claim to have patented '1-click ordering'. Even more absurb was the claim made in March 2002 by a 'til then unheard of company "Maz Technologies" that they had, in 1998, obtained a fairly generic patent covering encrypted storage of documents. BT's claim was finally rejected by a judge in the US on 23 August 2002.
2000 - Sept 6 RSA Security Inc. released their RSA algorithm into the public domain, in advance of the US patent (#4,405,829) expiring on the 20th Sept. of the same year. Following the relaxation of the US government restrictions earlier in the year (Jan. 14) this removed one of the last barriers to the world-wide distribution of much software based on cryptographic systems. It should be noted that the IDEA algorithm is still under patent and also that government restrictions still apply in some places.
2001 - Jan 4 Linux kernel 2.4.0 released.
2001 - March 24 Apple released MacOS X. At its heart is `Darwin', an Open Source operaing system on FreeBSD. Using this MacOS X finally gives Mac users the stabilty benifits of a protected memory architecture along many other enhancements, such as preemptive multitasking. The BSD base also makes porting UNIX applications to MacOS easier and gives Mac users a fully featured command line interface alongside their GUI.
2001 - October 25 Microsoft released Windows XP - the latest version of their Windows operating system. Based on the NT series kernel, it was intended to bring together both the NT/2000 series and the Windows 95/98/ME series into one product. Of, course, it was originally hoped that this would happen with Windows 2000 but that failed. This failure was largely because of compatibility with some older applications, notably for home users problems with MS-DOS based games. Windows XP owes its success in part to some improvments in compability, and in part to time having passed - rendering much of the incompatible software obsolete anyway.
2001 - November 15 Release of the `X' Box - Microsoft's games console. It cost $299 (or ?299 - there's fairness), and will include the ability to connect to the internet for multiplayer gaming. The Japanese launch was the 22nd February 2000, and the European launch wasn't until March 14th 2002.
2002 - August 6 Edsger W. Dijkstra died. Dijkstra is known to many people for his 'shortest path' algorithm (1956). Although this is the main thing many people will remember Dijkstra for, he also made important contributions to many areas of computing - in particular he should be remembered for his work on problems relating to concurrency, such as the invention of the `semaphore'.
2003 - April 24 Windows Server 2003 is the latest incarnation of what began life as Windows NT. Windows Server 2003 is, as the name suggests, targetted at servers rather than workstations and home PCs, those are the realm of Windows XP. Security and reliability were key aims during the development and release of Windows Server 2003, critical if Windows is to replace the UNIX systems that serve many enterprises.
2003 - October 24 MacOS 10.3 continues to improve MacOS X, with major updates to 'Aqua' (the user interface) as well as performance improvements and new features.
2003 - December 17 Linux kernel 2.6.0 released. Many features from uClinux (designed for embedded microcontrollers) have been integrated, along with support for NUMA (used in large, multi-processor systems). an improved scheduler and scalability improvements help ensure Linux will maintain its reputation for running on everything from small embedded devices to large enterprise-class servers and even mainframes. As always support for new classes of hardware has been significantly improved.
2003 - December 31 Sir Tim Berners-Lee was knighted in recognition of his creation of the 'World Wide Web'.
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