wodim - write data to optical disk media
wodim [ general options ] dev=device [ track options ] track1...trackn
There may be similarities and differences between this program and
other disk recording application(s). See the CREDITS and AUTHORS sec-
tions below to learn about the origin of wodim.
wodim is used to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange Book
CD-Recorder or to write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder.
The device is the device file offered by the operating system to access
the recorder. On Linux systems it is usually /dev/hd... for IDE/ATAPI
based devices and /dev/sg... for SCSI based defices. Note that sg...
devices represent the access trough the SCSI GENERIC interface and
therefore the differ from the device files generally used to open block
devices (/dev/scd... or /dev/sr...).
In any case, the user running wodim needs read and write access to the
particular device file on a Linux system. It is recommended to be root
or install the application as suid-root, because certain versions of
Linux (kernel) limit the set of SCSI commands allowed for non-root
users. Even if usage without root identity is possible in many cases,
some device drivers still may fail, show unexplainable problems and
generally the problems are harder to debug. The risk for buffer-under-
runs is also increased. See the NOTES section below for more details.
The alternative and kind of "portable" way is using the device-
type:scsi/target/lun specification. However, the success of this method
is not guaranteed since it requires an adaptation scheme for your
To access remote SCSI devices, you need to prepend the SCSI device name
by a remote device indicator. The remote device indicator is either
REMOTE:user@host: or REMOTE:host:
A valid remote SCSI device name may be: REMOTE:user@host: to allow
remote SCSI bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI
device at host connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0 lun 0.
wodim is completely based on SCSI commands but this is no problem as
all CD/DVD writers ever made use SCSI commands for the communication.
Even ATAPI drives are just SCSI drives that inherently use the ATA
packet interface as SCSI command transport layer build into the IDE
(ATA) transport. You may need to specify an alternate transport layer
on the command line if your OS does not implement a fully integrated
kernel driver subsystem that allows to access any drive using SCSI com-
mands via a single unique user interface.
To access SCSI devices via alternate transport layers, you need to
prepend the SCSI device name by a transport layer indicator. The
transport layer indicator may be something like USCSI: or ATAPI:. To
get a list of supported transport layers for your platform, use dev=
To make wodim portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev= device-
name:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as it hides OS specific knowledge
about device names from the user. A specific OS may not necessarily
support a way to specify a real device file name nor a way to specify
Scsibus 0 is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot mes-
sages for more information or look into /var/log/messages for more
information about the SCSI configuration of your machine. If you have
problems to figure out what values for scsibus,target,lun should be
used, try the -scanbus option of wodim described below.
If a file /etc/wodim.conf exists, the parameter to the dev= option may
also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).
On SVr4 compliant systems, wodim uses the real time class to get the
highest scheduling priority that is possible (higher than all kernel
processes). On systems with POSIX real time scheduling wodim uses real
time scheduling too, but may not be able to gain a priority that is
higher than all kernel processes.
In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS, run
at highest priority and lock itself into core wodim either needs to be
run as root, needs to be installed suid root or must be called via
RBACs pfexec mechanism.
In Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
contains the prepared data for that track. If the argument is `-',
standard input is used for that track. Only one track may be taken
from stdin. In the other write modes, the direct file to track rela-
tion may not be implemented. In -clone mode, a single file contains
all data for the whole disk. To allow DVD writing on platforms that do
not implement large file support, wodim concatenates all file arguments
to a single track when writing to DVD media.
General options must be before any track file name or track option.
Print version information and exit.
-v Increment the level of general verbosity by one. This is used
e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.
-V Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
by one. This helps to debug problems during the writing pro-
cess, that occur in the CD/DVD-Recorder. If you get incompre-
hensible error messages you should use this flag to get more
detailed output. -VV will show data buffer content in addition.
Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the reason for
a buffer underrun.
Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the
misc debug level by one (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
equals to debug=2. This may help to find problems while opening
a driver for libscg as well as with sector sizes and sector
types. Using -debug slows down the process and may be the rea-
son for a buffer underrun.
Tell the scg-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI
commands are running.
Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.
-force Force to continue on some errors. Be careful when using this
option. wodim implements several checks that prevent you from
doing unwanted things like damaging CD-RW media by improper
drives. Many of the sanity checks are disabled when the -force
option is used.
This option also implements some tricks that will allow you to
blank bad CD-RW disks.
-immed Tell wodim to set the SCSI IMMED flag in certain commands
(load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session). This can be use-
ful on broken systems with ATAPI harddisk and CD/DVD writer on
the same bus or with SCSI systems that don't use discon-
nect/reconnect. These systems will freeze while blanking or
fixating a CD/DVD or while a DVD writer is filling up a session
to the minimum amount (approx. 800 MB). Setting the -immed flag
will request the command to return immediately while the opera-
tion proceeds in background, making the bus usable for the other
devices and avoiding the system freeze. This is an experimental
feature which may work or not, depending on the model of the
CD/DVD writer. A correct solution would be to set up a correct
cabling but there seem to be notebooks around that have been set
up the wrong way by the manufacturer. As it is impossible to
fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed option has been added.
A second experimental feature of the -immed flag is to tell
wodim to try to wait short times while writing to the media.
This is expected to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD writer and
the data source are connected to the same IDE cable. In this
case, the CD/DVD writer would otherwise usually block the IDE
bus for nearly all the time making it impossible to fetch data
from the source drive. See also minbuf= and -v option.
Use both features at your own risk. If it turns out that it
would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
write to the author and convince him.
The # minbuf= option allows to define the minimum drive buffer
fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
to free the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD writer to be
on the same IDE cable. As the wait mode currently only works
when the verbose option -v has been specified, wodim implies the
verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf= option have been
specified. Valid values for minbuf= are between 25 and 95 for
25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.
-dummy The CD/DVD-Recorder will go through all steps of the recording
process, but the laser is turned off during this procedure. It
is recommended to run several tests before actually writing to a
Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing and load
response of the system is not known.
-clone Tells wodim to handle images created by readcd -clone. The
-clone may only be used in conjunction with with the -raw96r or
with the -raw16 option. Using -clone together with -raw96r is
preferred as it allows to write all subchannel data. The option
-raw16 should only be used with drives that do not support to
write in -raw96r mode.
-sao Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called Disk At
Once mode. This currently only works with MMC drives that sup-
port Session At Once mode. Note that wodim needs to know the
size of each track in advance for this mode (see the mkisofs
-print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more informa-
-tao Set TAO (Track At Once) writing mode. This is the default write
mode in previous wodim versions. With most drives, this write
mode is required for multi session recording.
-raw Set RAW writing mode. Using this option defaults to -raw96r.
Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in advance
for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAM-
PLES section for more information).
Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
of raw P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
bytes. This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives best
control over the CD writing process. If you find any problems
with the layout of a disk or with sub channel content (e.g.
wrong times on the display when playing the CD) and your drive
supports to write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give it
a try. There are several CD writers with bad firmware that
result in broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode. Writing
data disks in raw mode needs significantly more CPU time than
other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
buffer underruns. Note that wodim needs to know the size of
each track in advance for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size
option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).
Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
of packed P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
bytes. This is the less preferred raw writing mode as only a
few recorders support it and some of these recorders have bugs
in the firmware implementation. Don't use this mode if your
recorder supports -raw96r or -raw16. Writing data disks in raw
mode needs significantly more CPU time than other write modes.
If your CPU is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.
Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in advance
for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAM-
PLES section for more information).
-raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes
of P-Q subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.
If a recorder does not support -raw96r, this is the preferred
raw writing mode. It does not allow to write CD-Text or
CD+Graphics but it is the only raw writing mode in cheap CD
writers. As these cheap writers in most cases do not support
-dao mode. Don't use this mode if your recorder supports
-raw96r. Writing data disks in raw mode needs significantly
more CPU time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow,
this may result in buffer underruns. Note that wodim needs to
know the size of each track in advance for this mode (see the
mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more
-multi Allow multi session CDs to be made. This flag needs to be
present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
to create a session that will be the last session on the media.
The fixation will be done in a way that allows the CD/DVD-
Recorder to append additional sessions later. This is done by
generation a TOC with a link to the next program area. The so
generated media is not 100% compatible to manufactured CDs
(except for CDplus). Use only for recording of multi session
CDs. If this option is present, the default track type is CD-
ROM XA mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes. The XA
sector subheaders will be created by the drive. The Sony drives
have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1. You have
to specify the -data option in order to create multi session
disks on these drives. As long as wodim does not have a coder
for converting data sectors to audio sectors, you need to force
CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option if you like to
record a multisession disk in SAO mode. Not all drives allow
multisession CDs in SAO mode.
Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
This option makes only sense with a CD that contains at least
one closed session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
Some drives create error messages if you try to get the multi
session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.
-toc Retrieve and print out the table of content or PMA of a CD.
With this option, wodim will work with CD-R drives and with CD-
-atip Retrieve and print out the ATIP (absolute Time in Pre-groove)
info of a CD/DVD recordable or CD/DVD re-writable media. With
this option, wodim will try to retrieve the ATIP info. If the
actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info, it may be
that only a reduced set of information records or even nothing
is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives sup-
port to read the ATIP info.
If wodim is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the
first session, it will try to decode and print the manufacturer
info from the media. DVD media does not have ATIP information
but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
-fix The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will
be written). This may be used, if for some reason the disk has
been written but not fixated. This option currently does not
work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).
-nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the tracks. This may be
used to create an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there are
audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.
-waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before try-
ing to open the SCSI driver. This allows wodim to read it's
input from a pipe even when writing additional sessions to a
multi session disk. When writing another session to a multi
session disk, mkisofs needs to read the old session from the
device before writing output. This cannot be done if wodim
opens the SCSI driver at the same time.
-load Load the media and exit. This only works with a tray loading
mechanism but seems to be useful when using the Kodak disk
-lock Load the media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a
tray loading mechanism but seems to be useful when using the
Kodak disk transporter.
-eject Eject disk after doing the work. Some devices (e.g. Philips)
need to eject the medium before creating a new disk. Doing a
-dummy test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
on these devices.
Set the speed factor of the writing process to #. # is an inte-
ger, representing a multiple of the audio speed. This is about
150 KB/s for CD-ROM, about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio and about
1385 kB/s for DVD media. If no speed option is present, wodim
will try to get a drive specific speed value from the file
/etc/wodim.conf and if it cannot find one, it will try to get
the speed value from the CDR_SPEED environment and later from
the CDR_SPEED= entry in /etc/wodim.conf. If no speed value
could be found, wodim uses a drive specific default speed. The
default for all new (MMC compliant) drives is to use the maximum
supported by the drive. If you use speed=0 with a MMC compliant
drive, wodim will switch to the lowest possible speed for drive
and medium. If you are using an old (non MMC) drive that has
problems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.
Blank a CD-RW and exit or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
blanking type may be one of:
help Display a list of possible blanking types.
all Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.
fast Minimally blank the disk. This results in erasing
the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.
track Blank a track.
unreserve Unreserve a reserved track.
trtail Blank the tail of a track.
unclose Unclose last session.
session Blank the last session.
Not all drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary to use
blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being invalid. If
used together with the -force flag, this option may be used to blank
CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
specify blank=all because some drives will not continue with certain
types of bad CD-RW disks. Note also that wodim does it's best if the
-force flag is used but it finally depends on the drive's firmware
whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.
Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW disc. Formatting is currently only
implemented for DVD+RW media. A 'maiden' DVD+RW media needs to
be formatted before you may write to it. However, as wodim
autodetects the need for formatting in this case and auto for-
mats the medium before it starts writing, the -format option is
only needed if you like to forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.
fs=# Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #. You may use the same syn-
tax as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1). The number representing the
size is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified. If a number
is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s' or `f',
the size is multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.
If the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*',
multiplication of the two numbers is performed. Thus fs=10x63k
will specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.
The size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared mem-
ory that is needed for administration. This is at least one page
of memory. If no fs= option is present, wodim will try to get
the FIFO size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment. The
default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.
The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
process. It allows to run a pipe from mkisofs directly into
wodim. If the FIFO is active and a pipe from mkisofs into wodim
is used to create a CD, wodim will abort prior to do any modifi-
cations on the disk if mkisofs dies before it starts writing.
The recommended FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes. As a
rule of thumb, the FIFO size should be at least equal to the
size of the internal buffer of the CD/DVD-Recorder and no more
than half of the physical amount of RAM available in the
machine. If the FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statistics
will print a FIFO empty count of zero and the FIFO min fill is
not below 20%. It is not wise to use too much space for the
FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a speed less
than 20x from an image on a local file system on an idle
machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware prob-
lems or is mis-configured. If you like to write DVDs or CDs at
higher speed, it makes sense to use at least 16 MB for the FIFO.
On old and small machines, you need to be more careful with the
FIFO size. If your machine has less than 256 MB of physical
RAM, you should not set up a FIFO size that is more than 32 MB.
The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
table entries for 16 MBytes per process. Using more than
14 MBytes for the FIFO may cause the operating system in this
case to spend much time to constantly reload the MMU tables.
Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem. I
have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.
Old Linux systems for non x86 platforms have broken definitions
for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
kernel or manually tell wodim to use a smaller FIFO.
If you have buffer underruns or similar problems (like a con-
stantly empty drive buffer) and observe a zero fifo empty count,
you have hardware problems that prevents the data from flowing
fast enough from the kernel memory to the drive. The FIFO size
in this case is sufficient, but you should check for a working
ts=# Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
The syntax for the ts= option is the same as for wodim fs=# or
If no ts= option has been specified, wodim defaults to a trans-
fer size of 63 kB. If libscg gets lower values from the operat-
ing system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that is
possible with the current operating system. Sometimes, it may
help to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it, but
note that it may take a long time to find a better value by
experimenting with the ts= option.
Sets the SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see notes above.
A typical device specification is dev=6,0 . If a filename must
be provided together with the numerical target specification,
the filename is implementation specific. The correct filename
in this case can be found in the system specific manuals of the
target operating system. On a FreeBSD system without CAM sup-
port, you need to use the control device (e.g. /dev/rcd0.ctl).
A correct device specification in this case may be
On Linux, drives connected to a parallel port adapter are mapped
to a virtual SCSI bus. Different adapters are mapped to differ-
ent targets on this virtual SCSI bus.
If no dev option is present, wodim will try to get the device
from the CDR_DEVICE environment.
If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the charac-
ters ',', '/', '@' or ':', it is interpreted as an label name
that may be found in the file /etc/wodim.conf (see FILES sec-
Set the grace time before starting to write to # seconds. Val-
ues below 2 seconds are not recommended to give the kernel or
volume management a chance to learn the new state.
Set the default SCSI command timeout value to # seconds. The
default SCSI command timeout is the minimum timeout used for
sending SCSI commands. If a SCSI command fails due to a time-
out, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
the timeout value of the failed command. If the command runs
correctly with a raised command timeout, please report the bet-
ter timeout value and the corresponding command to the author of
the program. If no timeout option is present, a default timeout
of 40 seconds is used.
Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device. The
reason for the existence of the driver=name option is to allow
users to use wodim with drives that are similar to supported
drives but not known directly by wodim. All drives made after
1997 should be MMC standard compliant and thus supported by one
of the MMC drivers. It is most unlikely that wodim is unable to
find the right driver automatically. Use this option with
extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for a device, the possi-
bility of creating corrupted disks is high. The minimum problem
related to a wrong driver is that the speed= or -dummy will not
The following driver names are supported:
help To get a list of possible drivers together with a short
mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-ROM driver is auto-selected
whenever wodim finds a MMC compliant drive that does not
identify itself to support writing at all, or that only
identifies to support media or write modes not imple-
mented in wodim.
The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD/DVD driver is auto-selected
whenever wodim finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive
that seems to support more than one medium type and the
tray is open or no medium could be found to select the
right driver. This driver tries to close the tray,
checks the medium found in the tray and then branches to
the driver that matches the current medium.
The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
whenever wodim find a MMC compliant drive that only sup-
ports to write CDs or a multi system drive that contains
a CD as the current medium.
The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
whenever wodim would otherwise select the mmc_cdr driver
but the device seems to be made by Sony. The
mmc_cdr_sony is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as
this drive does not completely implement the MMC standard
and some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced by
Sony proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony drives
(even newer ones) still implement the Sony proprietary
SCSI commands so it has not yet become a problem to use
this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
drive that does not work with this driver, please report.
The generic SCSI-3/mmc-2 DVD-R/DVD-RW driver is auto-
selected whenever wodim finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant
drive that supports to write DVDs and an appropriate
medium is loaded. There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R/DVD+RW driver is auto-
selected whenever one of the DVD+ media types that are
incompatible to each other is found. It checks media and
then branches to the driver that matches the current
The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R driver is auto-selected
whenever a DVD+R medium is found in an appropriate
writer. Note that for unknown reason, the DVD-Plus
alliance does not like that there is a simulation mode
for DVD+R media. The author of wodim tries to convince
manufacturers to implement a simulation mode for DVD+R
and implement support. DVD+R only supports one write
mode that is somewhere between Track At Once and Packet
writing; this mode is selected in wodim via a the
The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver is auto-selected
whenever a DVD+RW medium is found in an appropriate
writer. As DVD+RW media needs to be formatted before
it's first use, wodim auto-detects this media state and
performs a format before it starts to write. Note that
for unknown reason, the DVD-Plus alliance does not like
that there is a simulation mode nor a way to erase DVD+RW
media. DVD+RW only supports one write mode that is close
to Packet writing; this mode is selected in wodim via a
the -dao/-sao option.
The driver for Matsushita/Panasonic CW-7501 is auto-
selected when wodim finds this old pre MMC drive. wodim
supports all write modes for this drive type.
The driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when wodim
finds this old pre MMC drive which has been the first
high speed (6x) CD writer for a long time. This drive
behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.
The driver for Philips CDD-521 is auto-selected when
wodim finds a Philips CDD-521 drive (which is the first
CD writer ever made) or one of the other drives that are
known to behave similar to this drive. All Philips
CDD-521 or similar drives (see other drivers in this
list) do not support Session At Once recording.
The driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
wodim finds a Philips CDD-521 with very old firmware
which has some known limitations.
The driver for Philips CDD-522 is auto-selected when
wodim finds a Philips CDD-522 which is the successor of
the 521 or one of it's variants with Kodak label. wodim
does not support Session At Once recording with these
The driver for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
tions is never auto-selected. It may be used by hand
with drives that behave similar to the Philips CDD-521.
The driver for Pioneer DW-S114X is auto-selected when
wodim finds one of the old non MMC CD writers from Pio-
The driver for Plasmon RF 4100 is auto-selected when
wodim finds this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521.
The driver for Ricoh RO-1060C is auto-selected when wodim
finds this drive. There is no real support for this drive
The driver for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when wodim
finds a drive with this specific variant of the Philips
CDD-521 command set.
The generic SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is auto-selected when-
ever wodim finds a pre MMC drive that does not support
writing or a pre MMC writer that is not supported by
The driver for Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected
whenever wodim finds one of the old pre MMC CD writers
The driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,
Pinnacle RCD-5020 is auto-selected whenever one of the
drives is found that is known to the non MMC command set
used by TEAC and JVC. Note that many drives from JVC
will not work because they do not correctly implement the
documented command set and JVC has been unwilling to fix
or document the bugs. There is no support for the Ses-
sion At Once write mode yet.
The driver for Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when
wodim finds a drive with this specific variant of the
Philips CDD-521 command set.
The driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected
when wodim finds one of the old pre MMC CD writers from
Yamaha. There is no support for the Session At Once
write mode yet.
The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed
tests with parameters that match the behavior of CD writ-
The simulation DVD-R driver allows to run timing and
speed tests with parameters that match the behavior of
There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and
dvd_simul. These driver entries are designed to make timing
tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do not sup-
port the -dummy option. The simulation drivers implement a
drive with a buffer size of 1 MB that can be changed via the
CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE environment variable. The simulation driver
correctly simulates even a buffer underrun condition. If the
-dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted in case
of a buffer underrun.
Set driver specific options. The options are specified a comma
separated list. To get a list of valid options use
driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive option. If you
like to set driver options without running a typical wodim task,
you need to use the -setdropts option in addition, otherwise the
command line parser in wodim will complain. Currently imple-
mented driver options are:
Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing on.
This only works for drives that support Buffer Underrun
Free technology. This may be called: Sanyo BURN-Proof,
Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.
The default is to turn BURN-Free off, regardless of the
defaults of the drive.
Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.
Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory
parameter value is the laser power offset and currently
may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2. In addition, you
need to set the write speed to 4 in order to allow
VariRec to work.
Manage the Plextor GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory
parameter value is the disk capacity ratio compared to
normal recording and currently may be selected from 0.6,
0.7, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4. If values < 1.0 are used,
then the effect is similar to the Yamaha Audio Master Q.
R. feature. If values > 1.0 are used, then the disk
capacity is increased.
Not all drives support all GigaRec values. When a drive
uses the GigaRec feature, the write speed is limited to
Turn on the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R. feature which usu-
ally should result in high quality CDs that have less
reading problems in Hi-Fi players. As this is imple-
mented as a variant of the Session at Once write mode, it
will only work if you select SAO write mode and there is
no need to turn it off. The Audio Master mode will work
with a limited speed but may also be used with data CDs.
In Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will be written
larger then usual so the capacity of the medium is
reduced when turning this feature on. A 74 minute CD
will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if Audio Master
is active and the capacity of a 80 minute CD will be
reduced to 68 minutes.
Normally, modern drives know the highest possible speed
for different media and may reduce the speed in order to
grant best write quality. This technology may be called:
Plextor PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
Speed Control or similar. Some drives (e.g. Plextor,
Ricoh and Yamaha) allow to force the drive to use the
selected speed even if the medium is so bad that the
write quality would be poor. This option tells such a
drive to force to use the selected speed regardless of
the medium quality.
Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive
should know better which medium will work at full speed.
The default is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of the
defaults of the drive.
Turn off the force speed feature.
Some ultra high speed drives such as 48x and faster
drives from Plextor limit the read speed for unknown
media to e.g. 40x in order to avoid damaged disks and
drives. Using this option tells the drive to read any
media as fast as possible. Be very careful as this may
cause the media to break in the drive while reading,
resulting in a damaged media and drive!
Turn off unlimited read speed.
Turn the drive into a single session only drive. This
allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
with extremely non-standard additional (broken/illegal)
TOC entries in the TOC from the second or higher session.
Some of these disks become usable if only the information
from the first session is used. You need to enable Sin-
gle Session mode before you insert the defective disk!
Turn off single session mode. The drive will again behave
Hide the fact that a medium might be a recordable medium.
This allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and applica-
tions believe that the media in the drive is not a CD-R.
Turn off hiding CD-R media.
Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
image size information for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
The images always have a line length of 3744 pixel. Line
number 0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the disk.
If you know the inner and outer radius you will be able
to create a pre distorted image that later may appear
undistorted on the disk.
Use this option together with -checkdrive to write an
image prepared for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature to the
medium. The file must be a file with raw image B&W data
(one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
call to tattoofile=name . If the size of the image
equals the maximum possible size (3744 x 320 pixel),
wodim will use the first part of the file. This first
part then will be written to the leftover space on the
Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable from
the pick up side of the CD.
Set the driveropts specified by driveropts=option list, the
speed of the drive and the dummy flag and exit. This allows
wodim to set drive specific parameters that are not directly
used by wodim like e.g. single session mode, hide cdr and simi-
lar. It is needed in case that driveropts=option list should be
called without planning to run a typical wodim task.
Checks if a driver for the current drive is present and exit.
If the drive is a known drive, wodim uses exit code 0.
-prcap Print the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as
obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000
bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with KB use 1024 bytes as
-inq Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.
Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry
strings. This option may be used to find SCSI address of the
CD/DVD-Recorder on a system. The numbers printed out as labels
are computed by: bus * 100 + target
-reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This
works not on all operating systems.
-abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive. If you use wodim
only, this should never be needed; but other software may leave
a drive in an unusable condition. Calling wodim -reset may be
needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the software
did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.
Allow wodim to write more than the official size of a medium.
This feature is usually called overburning and depends on the
fact that most blank media may hold more space than the official
size. As the official size of the lead-out area on the disk is
90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there are
at least 150 sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by
at least 88 seconds (6600 sectors). Most CD recorders only do
overburning in SAO or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502. Some drives do
not allow to overburn as much as you might like and limit the
size of a CD to e.g. 76 minutes. This problem may be circum-
vented by writing the CD in RAW mode because this way the drive
has no chance to find the size before starting to burn. There
is no guarantee that your drive supports overburning at all.
Make a test to check if your drive implements the feature.
Ignore the known size of the medium. This option should be used
with extreme care, it exists only for debugging purposes don't
use it for other reasons. It is not needed to write disks with
more than the nominal capacity. This option implies -overburn.
Use *.inf files to overwrite audio options. If this option is
used, the pregap size information is read from the *.inf file
that is associated with the file that contains the audio data
for a track.
If used together with the -audio option, wodim may be used to
write audio CDs from a pipe from cdda2wav if you call wodim with
the *.inf files as track parameter list instead of using audio
files. The audio data is read from stdin in this case. See
EXAMPLES section below. wodim first verifies that stdin is not
connected to a terminal and runs some heuristic consistency
checks on the *.inf files and then sets the track lengths from
the information in the *.inf files.
If you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called
with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed to a value
below the read speed of the source drive and switch the burn-
free option for the recording drive on.
Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track number
1. This option currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive
when creating track-at-once disks without the 2 second silence
before each track.
This option may go away in future.
Set Packet writing mode. This is an experimental interface.
Set the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode. This is an
Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
ing mode. This is an experimental interface.
Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.
-text Write CD-Text information based on information taken from a file
that contains ascii information for the text strings. wodim
supports CD-Text information based on the content of the *.inf
files created by cdda2wav and CD-Text information based on the
content from a CUE sheet file. If a CUE sheet file contains
both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.
You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
wodim to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
tell wodim to read a CUE sheet file in addition. If you like to
write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files or the
CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that are
relevant for CD-Text.
Write CD-Text based on information found in the binary file
filename. This file must contain information in a data format
defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the Red Book. The
four byte size header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
ambiguous. This is the best option to be used to copy CD-Text
data from existing CDs that already carry CD-Text information.
To get data in a format suitable for this option use wodim -vv
-toc to extract the information from disk. If both,
textfile=filename and CD-Text information from *.inf or *.cue
files are present, textfile=filename will overwrite the other
Take all recording related information from a CDRWIN compliant
CUE sheet file. No track files are allowed when this option is
present and the option -dao is currently needed in addition.